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Chicago Style: Author-Date System

The Author-Date system cites sources in the text by author’s last name and year of publication.

In-Text Citations

An in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations and directs readers to an entry in a bibliography section at the end of the paper where a complete reference is provided.


Include an in-text citation whenever you summarize the ideas of another author. Use only the surname of the author followed by the year of publication.

Example: (Winkleman 2009).

Multiple Authors

When citing multiple authors, separate names with a comma and use “and” before the final name.

Example: (Winkleman and Kurtine 2009) or (Winkelman, Smith, and Kurtine 2009).

Author’s name in the sentence

If using the author’s name in the sentence, only include the year in parentheses.

Example: Winkleman (2009, 134) cited political indifference as the problem.

Specific place in Text

Include page, chapter, section, or paragraph numbers when quoting or referring to a specific place in the text.

Example: (Winkleman 2009, 134).


General Rules

  • In Chicago style, the list of works cited is called “Bibliography.”
  • Alphabetize the references by author last name or first word of the citation.
  • For more than ten authors, list the first seven in the reference list, followed by “et al.”
  • Use hanging indentation.

Formatting References

  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
  • For article, chapter and book titles (and any subtitles), capitalize all words. For journal titles capitalize the same words the journal does.
  • If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit.
  • If there is no publication date listed, use n.d. (for “no date”) and include an access date.

DOIs and URLs

In general, references to online sources contain the same elements in the same order as do references to print sources, with the addition of retrieval information so that a reader can locate the source.

  • For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry
  • For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins A DOI is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar and should be used when available.


Article from journal, magazine or newspaper

Journal Article

Jaeger, Paul T., and Lindsay Sarin. 2016.  “All Librarianship is Political: Educate Accordingly.” The Political Librarian: 2 (1): 87-89.

Newspaper or Magazine Article

Hoey, Dennis. 2021. “Rare yellow lobster donated to UNE’s Marine Science Center.” Portland Press Herald, February 5, 2021.

eBooks and Print Books


Brown, Brene. 2012. Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent and Lead. New York: Gotham Books. ProQuest Ebrary.

Book by One Author (Print Version)

Klinenberg, Eric. 2018. A Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Broadway Books.

Book by Two or More Authors (Print Version)

Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward. 1974.  All the President’s Men. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Chapter in an Edited Book (Print Version)

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.


University of New England Library Services. 2019. “Copyright & Fair Use.” Accessed May 1, 2019.

Note: If the year of publication is not available use n.d. for no date.

Questions & Help

If you have questions on this, or another, topic, contact a librarian for help!