APA Style Guide
The documentation style recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) is widely used for writing in the social sciences.
The current 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in print at the Biddeford and Portland Libraries
The APA Style Website also offers guidance and citation examples and the full manual available for purchase.
- When paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, you must credit the source in the text
- The list of works cited is called “References”
- Alphabetize the references by author last name
- For any one reference, give all author names up to and including 20 authors
- For 21 authors or more, include the first 19 followed by three dots, followed by the name of the last author
- Use hanging indentation when listing references
References to sources in electronic formats contain the same elements in the same order as do references to print sources, with the addition of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL so that the reader can locate the source.
- You only need a retrieval date if the content you are citing is likely to change, such as pre-print journal articles or undated content from the Web
- Use a DOI instead of a URL if available
- If no date is given for a resource, add n.d. for no date
- Hyperlink URLs when a paper is intended to be read online.
The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source and should direct readers to an entry in the reference list.
Include an in-text citation whenever you summarize the ideas of another author. An in-text citation consists of the author’s name and publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence containing the summary.
Authors Name in the sentence
Use just the publication year in parentheses if you name the author in the sentence.
“As a leading expert in the subject, Winkleman (2009) asserts that…”
(Winkleman & Clark, 2019)
A Work by Three Or More Authors
List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources.
(Winkleman et al., 2019) Winkleman et al. (2019) suggest…
Add the page number when using a direct quote.
(Winkleman, 2009, p. 134).
Articles From Journals, Magazines or Newspapers
Article from a Print Journal OR a Research Database
Rowe, J. R. (2009). Nuclear power in a carbon-constrained world. Daedalus, 138(4), 81-92.
Online Journal Article
Brown, J. D., Sintzel, J., St. Arnault, D., & George, N. (2009). Confidence to foster across cultures: Caregiver perspectives. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(6), 633 -642. https://doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9264-z
Note: Use a DOI if available, otherwise use the URL of the article source.
Dvorak, P. (2009, May 30). On the street and on Facebook: The homeless stay wired — Mr. Pitts lacks a mailing address but he’s got a computer and a web forum. Wall Street Journal, p. A-1.
NOTE: If the article is from an online newspaper, include the article URL instead of the page number.
E-books and Print Books
Note: For e-books with a DOI, include the URL in place of publisher
Winkleman, M. (2009). Culture and health: Applying medical anthropology. Jossey-Bass.
Two to 20 authors
Robnett, R. H., & Chop, W. C. (2010). Gerontology for the health care professional. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Note: For 21 authors or more, include the first 19 followed by three dots, followed by the name of the last author.
Chapter in an Edited Book
Hart, L. A. (2006). Community context and psychosocial benefits of animal companionship. In A. H. Fine (Ed.), Handbook on animal assisted therapy (pp. 73- 94). Elsevier.
Note: add either the publisher or the URL at the end.
Note: this example also demonstrates and editor and an edition of the book. Do not add these elements if not present.
Arthritis Foundation. (2012). Exercise and arthritis. http://www.arthritis.org/exerciseintro.php
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2008). Assessing alcohol problems using motivational interviewing [Film; educational DVD].
Note: Add the writer, directors, host, producers, composer or artist as the author.
Cain, S. (2012). The Power of introverts [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/susan_cain_the_power_of_introverts/up-next?referrer=playlist-the_most_popular_talks_of_all&language=en
Doctorow, C. (2019, September 24). At the UN, Greta Thunberg excoriates world leaders and her elders for climate inaction. Boing Boing. https://boingboing.net/2019/09/24/the-house-is-on-fire.html
Rooks, J. (Host). (2019, November 6). Conserving Maine’s islands: What’s being done to protect Maine islands from climate change & threats [Audio podcast episode]. In Maine Calling. Maine Public. https://www.npr.org/podcasts/381443550/maine-calling
Demeo, A. E. (2013). A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology (Publication No. 3575461). [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Maine]. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED555885
Note: If the dissertation is from a research database, use the database name instead of a URL.
Despres v. Moyer, 827 A. 2d 61 (S.C. ME 2003).
NOTE: For information on preparing legal references, the APA refers writers to the latest edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.
Questions & Help
If you have questions on this, or another, topic, contact a librarian for help! We are available by chat, phone, appointment and walk-in during business hours at both libraries.