APA Style Guide
The documentation style recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) is widely used for writing in the social sciences.
The current 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in print at both library locations.
- When paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, you must credit the source in the text.
- The list of works cited is called “References”
- Alphabetize the references by author last name
- For any one reference, give all author names up to and including seven authors
- If eight or more authors, give the names of the first six, then three dots, followed by the name of the last author
References to sources in electronic format contain the same elements in the same order as do references to print sources, with the addition of retrieval information such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL so that the reader can locate the source.
- The retrieval date is only necessary if the content you are citing is likely to change, such as preprint journal articles, or undated content from the Web
- If a document has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assigned to it, include that in the reference
- If there is no DOI, include the URL of the document
- For e-books, there is no need to include the city and name of publisher
The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source and should direct readers to the associated entry in the reference list.
An in-text citation consists of the author’s name and publication year in parentheses:
Example: (Winkleman, 2009).
Authors Name in the sentence
If the author is named in the sentence, use just the publication year in parentheses.
Example: “As a leading expert in the subject, Winkleman (2009) asserts that…”
Add the page number when using a direct quote.
Example: (Winkleman, 2009, p. 134).
Article From a Journal, Magazine or Newspaper
ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH DOI
Brown, J.D., Sintzel, J., St. Arnault, D., & George, N. (2009). Confidence to foster across cultures: caregiver
perspectives. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(6), 633 -642. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9264-z
ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLE WITHOUT DOI
Persson, D. I., & Ostwald, S. K. (2009). Younger residents in nursing homes. Journal of Gerontological Nursing,
35, 22 -32. Retrieved from http://0 proquest.umi.com.lilac.une.edu/pqdweb?
PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION
Barnes, C. M., & Wagner, D. T. (2009). Changing to daylight saving time cuts into sleep and increases workplace
injuries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1305-1317.
PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED SEPARATELY
Rowe, J. R. (2009). Nuclear power in a carbon-constrained world. Daedalus, 138(4), 81-92.
NOTE: issue # is included after volume # for a journal with every issue starting on page 1.
ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
Dao. J., & Frosch, D. (2009, December 7). Military confidentiality rules raise counseling questions. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
NOTE: Give the URL of the homepage when the online article is available by search from the homepage. This avoids dead and broken links.
PRINT NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
Dvorak, P. (2009, May 30). On the street and on Facebook: the homeless stay wired — Mr. Pitts lacks a mailing
address but he’s got a computer and a web forum. Wall Street Journal, p. A-1.
E-books and Print Books
ENTIRE BOOK BY ONE AUTHOR
Winkleman, M. (2009). Culture and health: applying medical anthropology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
ENTIRE BOOK BY TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Robnett, R. H., & Chop, W.C. (2010). Gerontology for the health care professional. Sudbury, MA: Jones and
CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK OR REFERENCE WORK ENTRY
Hart, L.A. (2006). Community context and psychosocial benefits of animal companionship. In A.H. Fine (Ed.),
Handbook on animal assisted therapy (pp. 73- 94). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK OR REFERENCE WORK ENTRY, ELECTRONIC VERSION
Jaworska, A. (2009). Advance directives and substitute decision-making. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford
encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2009 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/advance-
E-BOOK WITHOUT DOI
Depp, C., & Jeste, D. (2010). Successful cognitive and emotional aging. Retrieved from http://0-
E-BOOK WITH DOI
Myers, C. D. (2008). Psychological aspects of health behavior. [Kindle version]. doi: 10.1045/0091233455
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2008). Assessing alcohol problems using motivational
interviewing [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/pubs/videos/
New England Journal of Medicine (Producer). (2008, August 27). An HIV vaccine — challenges and prospects:
An interview with Dr. Anthony Fauci [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
IMAGES (MAPS, PHOTOGRAPHS, ART ETC.)
Maine.gov Maps. (2009). DHHS offices [Map]. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/cgibin/gmaps/map.pl?
Arthritis Foundation. (2012). Exercise and arthritis. Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/exerciseintro.php
GOVERNMENT REPORT, CORPORATE AUTHOR
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009).
Advancing the nation’s health: A guide to public health research needs, 2006– 2015. Retrieved from
American Psychological Association. (2008). APA journals internet posting guidelines. Retrieved from
Despres v. Moyer, 827 A. 2d 61 (S.C. ME 2003).
NOTE: For information on preparing legal references, the APA refers writers to the latest edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.
Questions & Help
If you have questions about APA style, librarians are here to help!