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CSE Style Guide

CSE style is the bibliographic citation style recommended by the Council of Science Editors for use in biology and other sciences.

The current 8th edition of the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is available:


CSE Style actually denotes three different methods: name-year, citation-sequence, and citation-name. Depending on the convention used, in-text citations and end references will be formatted differently. 

Examples provided here are in name-year sequence. To use the citation-sequence or citation-name please refer to the CSE Style Manual.

References are referred to in the body of the paper using in-text citations. Cited references or resources are then listed alphabetically at the end of the research paper.

In-Text Citations

The in-text citation is a brief reference within the body of the paper that indicates the source consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source and should direct readers to the associated entry in the list of cited references.

The name-year in-text citation consists of the author’s name and year of publication

Example: (McCormac and Kennedy 2017)

Example: (Gordon et al. 2016)

Author’s name in sentence

If the author is named in the sentence, just include the year in parentheses.

Example: According to McCormac and Kennedy (2017) …

Cited References

At the end of a document, list the references to sources that have been cited within the text under the heading “References”, “Cited References”, “Literature Cited”, or “Bibliography”. To distinguish references for additional reading or other purposes that are not cited within the text, list them alphabetically by author under a separate heading such as “Additional References” or “Supplemental References”.


Print Journal Article

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Meise CJ, Johnson DL, Stehlik LL, Manderson J, Shaheen P. 2003. Growth rates of juvenile Winter Flounder under varying environmental conditions. Trans Am Fish Soc. 132(2):225-345.

Online Journal Article

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Online Encyclopedia Article

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Wagner S, Johanna T. 2016. Pregnancy. In: Gale encyclopedia of medicine [database on the Internet]. 5th ed. Vol. 2. Farmington Hills (MI): Gale. [accessed 2017 Jul 13]. (Gale Virtual Reference Library). p. 260-792.


Print Book

See Section of the CSE Manual.

McCormac JS, Kennedy G. 2004. Birds of Ohio. 2nd ed. Auburn (WA): Lone Pine.


See Section of the CSE Manual.

Rollin, BE. 1998. The unheeded cry: animal consciousness, animal pain, and science [Internet]. 3rd ed. Ames (IA): The Iowa State University Press. [accessed 2017 August 27].

Book Chapter

See Section of the CSE Manual.

McDaniel TK, Valdivia RH. 2005. Cellular microbiology. 2nd ed. Washington (DC): ASM Press. Chapter 2, New tools for virulence gene discovery; p. 473-488.


See Section of the CSE Manual.

When citing web pages it is important to cite all required information, but it can often be difficult to locate these elements. Work with the information provided; do not create placeholders for missing elements. If an author is not listed, simply leave that element out and do not enter anonymous. When information is given, be sure to include that information in the bibliography in this order:

Author. Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

APSnet: plant pathology online. 2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20].

Conference Paper

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. c2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society. p. 307–313.

Dissertation or Thesis

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Oviedo S. 1995. Adolescent pregnancy: voices heard in the everyday lives of pregnant teenagers [master’s thesis]. [Denton (TX)]: University of North Texas.

Technical Report

See Section of the CSE Manual.

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622

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