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Notes-Bibliography System Guide: Chicago Style

In-Text Notes

  • In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.
  • Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.
  • In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note, along with the bibliographic information for that source, should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.
  • Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1.

Formatting Footnotes

  • In both Microsoft Word and Google Docs, click on Insert, then Footnote to add a footnote.
  • At the bottom of the page, the note numbers are normally full size and followed by a period.
  • The first note referring to a work must be a full note, but subsequent citations for that same work can be shortened.

Example

Example: Courage starts with showing up and letting ourselves be seen.[1]


1. Brene Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way we Live, Love, Parent and Lead (New York: Gotham Books, 2012), 340.

Bibliographies

General Rules

  • In Chicago style, the list of works cited is called “Bibliography.”
  • References in the bibliography are organized alphabetically by author’s last name.
  • For more than ten authors list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.
  • Use hanging indentation.

Formatting Sources

  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks
  • If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit)
  • For article, chapter and book titles (and any subtitles), capitalize all words. For journal titles capitalize the same words the journal does.
  • For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

Electronic Sources

In general, references to sources in electronic format contain the same elements in the same order as do references to print sources. In addition, provide retrieval information so that a reader can locate the source electronically.

  • For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry
  • For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Examples:

Article from journal, magazine or newspaper

Electronic Journal Article
Full note:

1. Paul T. Jaeger and Lindsay Sarin.  “All Librarianship is Political: Educate Accordingly” The Political Librarian 2, no. 1 (2016): 87-89. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/pollib/vol2/iss1/8

Shortened note:

1. Jaeger, “All Librarianship is Political,”  87-89.

Bibliography:

Jaeger, Paul T. and Lindsay Sarin. “All Librarianship is Political: Educate Accordingly.” The Political Librarian 2, no. 1 (2016): 87-89. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/pollib/vol2/iss1/8

Online Newspaper Article
Full note:

1. Harry Stevens, Dan Keating, and Kevin Uhrmacher. “What’s Next in the Trump Impeachment Inquiry?” The Washington Post,  October 2, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/politics/impeachment-calendar/

Shortened note:

1.  Stevens, Keating and Uhrmacher, “What’s Next in the Trump Impeachment Inquiry?”

Bibliography:

Stevens, Harry, Dan Keating, and Kevin Uhrmacher. “What’s Next in the Trump Impeachment Inquiry?” The Washington Post,  October 2, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/politics/impeachment-calendar/

e-books and Print Books

e-book
Full note:

1. Brene Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way we Live, Love, Parent and Lead (New York: Gotham Books, 2012), 340-353.

Shortened note:

1. Brown, Daring Greatly, 352.

Bibliography:

Brown, Brene, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way we Live, Love, Parent and Lead (New York: Gotham Books, 2012), 340-353, ProQuest Ebrary.

Entire Book by One Author, Print Version
Full note:

1. Eric Klinenberg, Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. (New York: Broadway Books, 2018), 27-32.

Shortened note:

1. Klinenberg Palaces for the People, 28.

Bibliography:

Klinenberg, Eric. Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Broadway Books, 2018.

Entire Book by Two or More Authors, Print Version
Full note:

1. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, All the President’s Men. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), 99.

Shortened note:

1. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward,  All the President’s Men, 99.

Bibliography:

Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward.  All the President’s Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974.

Chapter in an Edited Book, Print Version
Full Note:

1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Shortened Note:

1. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.

Bibliography:

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Websites

Full note

1. “Understanding Copyright,” University of New England Library Services. 2019. Accessed May 1, 2019. https://www.library.une.edu

Shortened note

1. University of New England Library Services, “Understanding Copyright.”

Bibliography

University of New England Library Services. 2019. “Understanding Copyright” Accessed May 1, 2019. https://www.library.une.edu