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Chicago Style: Notes-Bibliography System

The Notes-Bibliography(NB) system uses footnotes or endnotes to cite sources in a text.

In-Text Citations

Include a superscript number at the end of the sentence or clause whenever you reference a source by direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.

The superscript numbers will correspond to a note (footnote or endnote). Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced; endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the document.

Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with one.

Formatting Footnotes

In Microsoft Word: click on References, Insert Footnote. In Google Docs: click on Insert, Footnote.

At the bottom of the page, the note numbers are full size and followed by a period. Use a full note the first time you refer to a source, but subsequent citations for that same work can be shortened.

Example: Courage starts with showing up and letting ourselves be seen.[1]


1. Brene Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent and Lead (New York: Gotham Books, 2012), 340.

Bibliographies

General Rules

  • In Chicago style, the list of works cited is called “Bibliography.”
  • Alphabetize the references by author last name or first word of the citation.
  • For more than ten authors list the first seven in the reference list, followed by “et al.”
  • Use hanging indentation.

Formatting Resources

  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
  • For article, chapter and book titles (and any subtitles), capitalize all words. For journal titles capitalize the same words the journal does.
  • If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or omit.)
  • If there is no publication date listed, use n.d. (for “no date”) and include an access date.

About Electronic Sources

In general, references to sources in electronic formats contain the same elements in the same order as do references to print sources, with the addition of retrieval information so that a reader can locate the source.

  • For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry
  • For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. A DOI is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar and should be used when available.

Examples

Article from journal, magazine or newspaper

Journal Article
Full note:

1. Paul T. Jaeger and Lindsay Sarin,  “All Librarianship is Political: Educate Accordingly,” The Political Librarian 2, no. 1 (2016): 87-89, https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/pollib/vol2/iss1/8.

Shortened note:

1. Jaeger and Sarin, “All Librarianship is Political,”  87-89.

Bibliography:

Jaeger, Paul T., and Lindsay Sarin. “All Librarianship is Political: Educate Accordingly.” The Political Librarian 2, no. 1 (2016): 87-89. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/pollib/vol2/iss1/8.

Newspaper Article
Full note:

1. Hoey, Dennis. 2021. “Rare yellow lobster donated to UNE’s Marine Science Center.” Portland Press Herald, February 5, 2021. https://www.pressherald.com/2021/02/04/rare-yellow-lobster-donated-to-unes-marine-science-center.

Shortened note:

1.  Hoey, “Rare yellow lobster donated to UNE’s Marine Science Center”

Bibliography:

Hoey, Dennis. 2021. “Rare yellow lobster donated to UNE’s Marine Science Center.” Portland Press Herald, February 5, 2021. https://www.pressherald.com/2021/02/04/rare-yellow-lobster-donated-to-unes-marine-science-center.

e-books and Print Books

e-book
Full note:

1. Brene Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent and Lead. (New York: Gotham Books, 2012), 352, ProQuest Ebrary.

Shortened note:

1. Brown, Daring Greatly, 352.

Bibliography:

Brown, Brene. Daring Greatly: How the Courage to be Vulnerable Transforms the Way we Live, Love, Parent and Lead. New York: Gotham Books, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

Book by One Author (Print Version)
Full note:

1. Eric Klinenberg, Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life, (New York: Broadway Books, 2018), 27-32.

Shortened note:

1. Klinenberg, Palaces for the People, 28.

Bibliography:

Klinenberg, Eric. Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Broadway Books, 2018.

Book by Two or More Authors (Print Version)
Full note:

1. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, All the President’s Men, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), 99.

Shortened note:

1. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward,  All the President’s Men, 99.

Bibliography:

Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward.  All the President’s Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974.

Chapter in an Edited Book, Print Version
Full Note:

1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177.

Shortened Note:

1. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.

Bibliography:

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

Websites

Full note

1. “Copyright & Fair Use,” University of New England Library Services, accessed May 1, 2019, https://www.library.une.edu.

Shortened note

1. University of New England Library Services, “Copyright & Fair Use.”

Bibliography

University of New England Library Services. “Copyright & Fair Use.” Accessed May 1, 2019. https://www.library.une.edu.

Questions & Help

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